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(G) Learning Processes: A Diagnostic Framework

(G) Learning Processes: A Diagnostic Framework

Copyright © 1998 Martha Lewis Kentfield

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Cognition/Intelligence
Ability to reason, to think abstractly, and to solve problems
Wechsler Tests: WISC-V, WAIS-IV, WPPSI-IV
Stanford-Binet: Fifth Edition
Differential Ability Scales II (DAS-II)
Bayley Scales of Infant Development- Third Edition
Verbal Intelligence
Ability to use cognitive processes which rely primarily on verbal language
Wechsler: Verbal Scales
Stanford-Binet: FE-Verbal Comprehension Factor (Fifth Edition)
DAS II: Verbal Ability
Nonverbal Intelligence
Ability to use cognitive processes which do not rely primarily on verbal
language.
Wechsler: Performance Scales
Stanford-Binet: FE – Nonverbal Reasoning/Visualization Factor
DAS II: Nonverbal Ability
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II (K-ABC-II): Nonverbal Scale
Leiter International Performance Scale- Third Edition
Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Matrix Analogies Test-Expanded Form

Language

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Receptive Verbal Language
Ability to understand incoming spoken language.
Wechsler: Verbal Scales
Test of Language Development-Fifth Edition (TOLD-5): Listening Composite

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language- Fourth Edition (TACL-4)
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-5): Receptive Subtests
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- Fifth Edition Oral and Written Language Scales
(OWLS-II): Listening Comprehension
Expressive Verbal Language
Ability to convey ideas and relate information through oral language.
Wechsler: Verbal Scales
TOLD-5: Speaking Composite
CELF-5: Expressive Subtests
Woodcock-Johnson, IV- Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ-IV COG): Oral
Language Cluster
Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT-3)
OWLS II: Oral Expression Speech Exam and Language Sample
Receptive Nonverbal Language
Ability to derive meaning from pictures, gestures, and facial expressions, and to interpret social situations without verbal clues.
Wechsler: Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Object Assembly
Stanford-Binet: FE – Absurdities
K-ABC: Gestalt Closure, Photo Series, Face Recognition
Observations of Behavior
Expressive Nonverbal Language
Ability to convey meaning through gestures, facial expressions, and drawings.
Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test Kinetic Family Drawing (ITPA-3): Manual Expression
Observations of behavior

Auditory Skills

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Auditory Ability to detect Wepman Auditory Discrimination Test

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Discrimination subtle likenesses and differences between speech sounds. 2nd Edition
Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills- Fourth Edition (TAPS-IV): Auditory Word Discrimination
Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination
Auditory Analysis
Ability to break words into syllables and/or discrete sound components.
WJ-IV, Cognitive: Incomplete Words
Slingerland: Test 7, Echolalia
Auditory Analysis Task (plant = p-l-a-n-t)
Auditory Synthesis
Ability to combine supplied sounds or syllables into words (sound blending).
WJ-IV, Cognitive: Sound Blending
Mann-Suiter Sound Blending
Auditory Immediate Memory
Ability to retain information just heard for a short period of time (no storage involved).
Wechsler: Digit Span
Stanford-Binet: FE-Memory for Sentences, Memory for Digits K-ABC: Number Recall, Word Order
WJ-IV, Cognitive: Memory for Sentences, Memory for Words
Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude- Fifth Edition (DTLA-5): Sentence
Imitation, Word Sequences, Story Sequences
Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML-2): Verbal Scale
Auditory
Recent Memory
Ability to store and recall recently heard auditory material.
Slingerland: Tests 6, 8
Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (WRAML-2): Verbal Learning, Verbal
Learning Recall, Story Memory Recall

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Auditory Remote Memory
Ability to store and recall auditory material heard several months or years earlier.
Wechsler: Information, Similarities, Vocabulary, Comprehension
Stanford-Binet: FE – Vocabulary, Comprehension, Verbal Relations
WJ-IV, Achievement: Knowledge Cluster
Peabody Individual Achievement Test-
Revised: General Information (1997 Norms)

Visual Skills

Visual Discrimination
Ability to detect subtle likenesses and differences in visual stimuli such as symbols, pictures, and designs.
Wechsler: Performance Scale WJ-IV, Cognitive: Visual Matching, Cross Out
Motor Free Visual Perception Test- Fourth Edition (MVPT-4)
Slingerland: Test 4
Test of Visual Perceptual Skills- 4th Edition  (TVPS-4): Visual Discrimination
Visual Analysis Ability to identify the parts of a visual stimulus and to differentiate figure from ground.
Wechsler: Performance Scale K-ABC-II: Gestalt Closure, Triangles, Matrix Analogies, Photo Series Slingerland: Tests 1, 2, 3, 8
Motor Free Visual Perception Test-Fourth Edition
Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test -Third Edition
Observations of word list and paragraph reading

Visual Skills

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Visual Skills

Visual Analysis/Synthesis
Ability to identify the parts of a visual stimulus and to combine visual elements into a whole.
Wechsler: Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly K-ABC-II: Triangles, Photo Series
Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Stanford-Binet: FE-Pattern Analysis
Visual Immediate Memory
Ability to retain information just seen for a short period of time (no storage involved).
Wechsler: Coding
Stanford-Binet: FE-Bead Memory,
Memory for Objects
K-ABC-II: Hand Movements, Spatial Memory
WJ-IV, Cognitive: Picture Recognition
WRAML-2: Visual Scale
Visual Recent Memory
Ability to store and recall recently seen visual information.
Slingerland: Tests 3, 5
Ray-Osterrieth Complex Figure Drawing (ROCF)
Weekly spelling tests
WRAML-2: Visual Learning, Visual Learning Recall
Visual Remote Memory
Ability to store and recall visual information seen several months or years earlier.
Wechsler: Picture Completion, Object Assembly
Achievement tests: word recognition, oral reading, spelling
Visual-Spatial Orientation
Ability to perceive spatial relationships involving one’s own body and the environment.
Ability to organize and interpret spatial relationships on a two-dimensional level as in copying, writing or reading.
Slingerland Tests: 1, 2
Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test II
Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test- Third Edition
Wechsler: Block Design
Stanford-Binet: FE-Pattern Analysis
Observations of written work, reading, and behavior

Visual Skills

Visual Scanning Ability to investigate visual material in a systematic, organized way.
Slingerland: Tests 3, 4, 8
Motor Free Visual Perception Test- Fourth Edition
Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test- Third Edition
Observations of paragraph reading

Motor Skills

Fine Motor Coordination
Ability to control fine muscle movements, as in writing, drawing and cutting.
Wechsler: Coding, Mazes
Stanford-Binet: FE – Copying
Bender-Gestalt Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration – Sixth Edition (VMI-6)
Slingerland: Tests 1, 2, 5, 6
Observations of writing, drawing, cutting, and coloring
Fine Motor Coordination –Speech
Ability to coordinate articulatory movement patterns for speech.
Speech Exam
Slingerland: Echolalia
Tactile-Kinesthetic Discrimination
Ability to identify and interpret information gained through touch and movement.
Task: Examiner moves child’s fingers to form letters or numbers with eyes closed; child identifies.
Kinesthetic Memory
Ability to remember information gained through movement.
Task: Examiner teaches a new word through repeated writing; child reproduces later
Observation of motor patterns in writing
Gross Motor Coordination
Ability to coordinate large muscle movements as in running, walking, skipping and throwing.
Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency- Second Edition (BOT-2)
Observation of gross motor activities.

Motor Skills

Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Modality Integration
Ability to transfer information from one sensory modality to another.
Ability to coordinate two or three modalities in the production of outgoing responses.
Slingerland Halstead-Reitan and Reitan-Indiana Neuropsychological Test Batteries
WJ-IV, Cognitive: Visual-Auditory Learning
WRAML-2: Sound Symbol
Comparisons of performance on academic tasks such as reading, copying, and dictated spelling.

Social and Emotional Adjustment Process Tests Which Give Information

Self-Concept and Relationships with Others
Projective Drawing Tests
Apperception Tests (CAT, TAT, Roberts)
Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale (updated norms)
Sentence Completion Tests
Rorschach Psychodiagnostic Test
Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory
Social Maturity and Appropriateness of Behavior
Woodcock-Johnson Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R)
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale Developmental Profile III
Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18)
Achenbach 1991 Teacher’s Report Form
Conners Parent & Teacher Rating Scales- Third Edition
Behavior Evaluation Scale-4 (BES-4)

Academic Skills and Achievement Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Reading and Phonics Skills
Ability to decode unfamiliar words, to recognize familiar
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III): Reading Composite
Woodcock-Johnson – Fourth Edition

Academic Skills and Achievement Process Definition Tests Which Give Information words, and to understand written material.

Achievement (WJ-IV ACH): Reading Subtests
Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA-3): Reading Composite (1997 Norms)
Ekwall Reading Test
Informal survey of phonics skills
Spelling Skills Ability to encode words in written form. Use of spelling rules, visual recall, and auditory analysis skills in encoding words.
WIAT III: Spelling
K-TEA-3: Spelling (1997 Norms)
Wide Range Achievement Test-5 (WRAT-5): Spelling
Test of Written Spelling-5
Dictated Spelling Tasks
Handwriting Skills
Neatness, spatial organization, and knowledge of manuscript and/or cursive alphabets.
WIAT-III: Written Expression
Test of Written Language-Fourth Edition (TOWL-4)
Slingerland, Tests 1, 2, 5, 6
Alphabet Writing Task
Classroom Writing Samples
Written Language Skills
Ability to organize and relate ideas in written form.
Knowledge of written language mechanics skills.
WIAT- III: Writing Composite
Test of Written Language- Fourth Edition
Test of Early Written Language- Third Edition (TEWL-3)
WJ-IV, Achievement: Written Language Subtests
OWLS-II: Written Expression Scale
Mathematics Skills
Ability to perform arithmetic computations and to solve problems involving
Mathematical concepts and reasoning.
WIAT-III: Mathematics Composite
Key Math-Revised (1997 Norms)
WJ-IV, Achievement: Mathematics Subtests
K-TEA-3: Mathematics Composite (1997 Norms)
WRAT-5: Arithmetic

Academic Skills and Achievement Process Definition Tests Which Give Information

Hearing Pure Tone Audiometric Screening
Tympanometry
Keenness of vision
Snellen Vision Screening
Titmus Test
Physical Health and Development
Goldstein Childhood History Form (Revised)
Health & Developmental Interview
Neurodevelopmental Exam